The work group aims first to provide clear descriptions of existing procedural models, outlining their potential and requirements and providing examples at study and item level. The CCSG modules on questionnaire development, adaptation instrument design and pretesting already outline fundamental issues to be considered in designing, testing and implementing questions for cross-cultural projects. Harkness, Edwards, Hansen, Villar and Miller (2010) and Harkness, van de Vijver and Johnson (2003) describe general options and challenges for comparative questionnaire design.